Creative Sustainability – Aalto University School of Business

It is widely thought that a multidisciplinary approach is needed in order to teach sustainability effectively. Aalto University School of Business has used this idea to create an innovative master’s degree that brings together three different schools, and the students, faculty and courses from the three different disciplines, to enable students to think about, explore and develop innovative solutions to business, environmental and societal problems. I had the chance recently to speak with Minna Halme and Armi Temmes about this unique programme.

What is the Creative Sustainability Master’s Programme?

Our Master’s Degree Programme in Creative Sustainability is a joint programme with the School of Arts, Design and Architecture, the School of Business and the School of Engineering. It is a multidisciplinary learning platform in the fields of architecture, business, design, landscape planning, real estate and urban planning. The programme is also offered as a minor for master-level students at Aalto University.

The programme is unique because it brings together students from different fields to study in multidisciplinary teams to create new sustainable solutions for human, urban, industry and business environments. The pedagogical approach is based on integrating teaching and research, problem-based learning, blended learning and a strong connection to practical outcomes.

The programme began in 2007 before Aalto University was even in operation. At the time, key individuals from the different departments came together to create this programme as a minor study programme. When Aalto University was formed in 2010, the programme became a master’s level programme.

What are the key features of the programme and how does it work?

Students have access to a wide range of elective courses from across the different schools involved in the programme. We have several critical academic reading seminars but also courses like “How to Change the World: Innovation toward Sustainability,” where sustainability challenges are taken as starting points for innovation of new forms of individual action, economic activity, business models, and organisational forms. There are also project courses that offer the opportunity to work with real-life sustainability questions of companies, NGOs or public organisations.

Why have a Master’s in Creative Sustainability? Why make it interdisciplinary with science, art, technology and business?

The interdisciplinary Master’s Programme follows directly the aims of Aalto University itself – to combine technology, business and design. We believe this is knowledge any business needs to have.

What advice would you have for other schools thinking of putting something similar into place?

Cooperation is an investment; it takes time and patience to develop a common Masters’ Programme with other schools. The programme takes place across different schools that all have their own study structures. In order to make this work a lot of time was needed to circumvent the existing bureaucracy and lobby for special rules for interdisciplinary studies. The rewards, however, are great.

Preparing for the Upcoming UN Discussions Around Carbon Pricing

Climate SummitIn late September 2014, 300 Heads of State and Government, Chief Executive Officers, Civil Society Leaders and Heads of UN Agencies will convene in New York for the UN Climate Summit 2014. Integral to the summit, the Private Sector Forum (PSF) will bring the voice of the private sector to the intergovernmental debate, addressing in particular how businesses across sectors are taking action on climate change.

The latest report from the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change makes clear the importance of putting a price on carbon to help limit the increase in global mean temperature to two degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels. In support of this goal, the PSF will be putting a particular focus on carbon pricing, and more specifically, on actions that the public and private sectors can take to achieve an equitable and fair valuation of carbon through long-term strategies, investments and policies.

Through the Caring for Climate initiative, organised by the UN Global Compact, the UN Environment Programme and the secretariat of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, the Business Leadership Criteria on Carbon Pricing have been developed. The Criteria, which will be featured at the Climate Summit, look at integrating carbon pricing into long-term strategies and investment decisions, responsible policy advocacy, and communicating on progress (a reporting requirement of the UN Global Compact aimed at advancing transparency and accountability, and driving continuous improvement). This Criteria complements the Statement on Putting a Price on Carbon, developed by the World Bank Group and other partners, which has already been signed by more than 20 countries and more than 230 companies around the world, acknowledging strong global support for action on pricing carbon. The World Bank Groups also report in the 2014 State and Trends in Carbon Pricing, that nearly 40 countries, and more than 20 cities, states and provinces, currently use carbon pricing mechanisms such as emissions trading systems and carbon taxes.

A range of resources on climate change and the private sector are available to engage students in these discussions in the lead up to the summit. A report released by the Caring for Climate initiative, Adapting for a Green Economy: Companies, Communities and Climate Change, provides a wealth of information around climate change and its implications, both in terms of risks and opportunities for business. The Climate and Energy Action Hub, part of the UN Global Compact’s Business Partnership Hub, is an online platform where companies can upload and browse partnership project opportunities, and showcase private sector climate projects that have potential for scalability. The Private Sector Initiative – database of actions on adaptation features good practices and profitable climate change adaptation activities being taken up by private companies (sometimes in partnership with NGOs or the public sector) from a wide range of regions and sectors. Adaptation activities may relate either to ensuring the resilience of business operations, or the provision of technologies or services that assist in the adaptation of vulnerable communities to climate change.

UNESCO launched an online database of resources on Climate Change Education (CCE), which provides access to hundreds of resources on good practices, teaching and learning materials, scientific articles and multimedia material from around the world in English, French and Spanish, organised by education level/type of resource. They have also created a special toolkit on how to integrate Climate Change Education into the curriculum which, although created for use by secondary school teachers, provides a range of links to regional resources as well as high quality graphs that can be used in the classroom.

Leading up to the Climate Summit 2014 and to COP 21 (December 2015), we will share opportunities for universities to engage in and follow the debate, as well as resources on climate change and responsible management that can be used in the classroom. Schools can engage in dialogues planned globally through the UN Global Compact Local Networks, which explore climate change risks and opportunities, sustainable development, and climate change adaptation at the local level. Happening in parallel to the Climate Summit, schools in and around New York City can get engaged through Climate Week NYC, or online, following #Climate2014, #climatechange, @UN_ClimateTalks on Twitter.

The International Year of Small Island Developing States

SIDSSmall Island Development States (SIDS) were first recognised as a distinct group of countries at the United Nations at the UN Conference on Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro in 1992. There are currently 39 SIDS spread out across the Caribbean, the Pacific, Indian Ocean and South China Sea, which are home to over 63.2 million people. They are a very diverse group making up countries such as Comores with a GDP per capita of $830, to Singapore where it is $51,000.

The SIDS have their own peculiar vulnerabilities and characteristics, so that the difficulties they face in the pursuit of sustainable development are particularly severe and complex. Their unique characteristics can also present benefits and make ideal locations for pilot projects in renewable energy. For example, the island of Tokelau recently began producing 100% of its energy from solar sources.

2014 is the International Year of Small Island States, an opportunity to appreciate the extraordinary resilience and rich cultural heritage of the people of SIDS. To celebrate this, we feature three schools making a difference in the field of responsible business, in their respective SIDS countries: Trinidad and Tobago, Singapore and the Dominican Republic.

Trinidad and Tobago: Arthur Lok Jack Graduate School of Business

The Sustainable Renewable Energy Business Incubator Initiative at Arthur Lok Jack Graduate School of Business aims to grow and nurture companies operating within the emerging sustainable energy sector in Trinidad and Tobago, through the provision of business support, facilitation of access to markets and access to finance, as well as technology transfer and joint ventures. The incubator has hosted a range of companies including photovoltaic panels for solar generated energy, recycling and proper tire disposal for generation of supplemental fuel substitute, and power generation using tidal power.

The school continues to partner with the Energy Chamber in promoting responsible business on the island, through the annual CSR Leadership Awards intended to recognise companies of all sizes that demonstrate a deep and genuine commitment to sustainability. It also organises the Social Enterprise Hive, an annual event that highlights Social Enterprise within the community. Participants in this programme learn how to develop and maintain ethical practices by using role models from the community to connect what socially responsible practices look and feel like.

Singapore: Lee Kong Chian School of Business – Singapore Management University

The Lien Centre for Social Innovation at Singapore Management University was established in 2006 with the vision of being a thought leader and catalyst for positive social change in Singapore and beyond. The Centre connects with the community through its publications, its education programmes, open forums, and competitions. One of these programmes is iLeap, a professional education course for non-profit leaders, run annually since 2010 and consisting of 14 modules over 14 weeks. The course is designed to enhance the strategic leadership, governance, and operational management capabilities of non-profit executives, in collaboration with select community partners.

In 2013, the university launched a values-based education programme called SMU LifeLessons, that is implemented through co-curricular activities. Undergraduate students participate in the programme throughout their years at the university. Various topics—such as personal values along with business values, purpose, mission, conflict management, and developing a world view—are covered across different years using instructional methods that include case studies, journaling, and group discussions.

Dominican Republic: Barna Business School

Barna Business School launched the first Chair of Sustainability in the Caribbean region as part of the VICINI Center for Research on Sustainability, which aims to foster joint interests and to produce cutting-edge research, case studies and best practices that help organisations gain competitive advantage and be active agents in their quest to develop. Faculty at the business school are assessed against a learning outcome specifically related to Sustainability, and are developing a range of new case studies around the topic of sustainability and the local context.

Barna has also developed a think tank made up of the individuals responsible for sustainability at some of the leading companies in the Dominican Republic, who meet regularly to discuss to share their experiences. A Sustainability Club has also been put in place to engage alumni in these topics.

 

The International Year of Small Island Development States coincides with the 2014 Conference on Small Island Developing States in Apia, Samoa from 1 to 4 September. For more visit http://www.sids2014.org.

Sustainable Business Examples from Around the World – US, France and Finland

Screen Shot 2014-05-27 at 16.21.58As businesses become more engaged in sustainability around the world, we are presented with an increasing range of examples of active companies. However, when I speak with students and faculty, they say that they repeatedly hear the same examples from the same international companies.

In an attempt to share some new examples of good practice, I asked a handful of faculty members from around the world about their favourite classroom examples of local companies that are actively involved in sustainability. Below are some examples from the US, France, and Finland.

Joe Lawless, Executive Director of the Center for Leadership & Social Responsibility, Milgard School of Business, USA
Theo Chocolates has done an exceptional job of creating a company based upon the belief that they can make the world a better place through a commitment to social and environmental justice. Their efforts to support farmers and farming communities in cocoa growing regions include supporting their ability to utilise sustainable growing practices without synthetic pesticides or chemical fertilisers. Theo was the first organic and Fair Trade chocolate factory in the country. They are successful in creating a sustainable product profitably, and it is really good!

Caroline Cazi, Director of Human Resources, Diversity and CSR, Montpellier Business School, France
In 2012, Dell launched a commitment to put technology and expertise to work where it can do the most good for people and the planet. It is a first step toward a new sustainability strategy for Dell. The Dell 2020 Legacy of Good Plan brings that strategy into focus and sets the trajectory for how social and environmental sustainability will become an accelerator for successful and sustainable customer and societal outcomes for years to come. Another example is Adecco. While the labor market should be opened to all, many men and women—handicapped, senior, without diplomas, from diverse cultural or socio-economic backgrounds—have no possibility of working. Since 2002, the mission of the Foundation of the Group Adecco is to favour the professional success of all, so that each individual is able to express their talent and aspiration, in their employment.

Minna Halme and Armi Temmes, Professors of Corporate Social Responsibility, Aalto University, School of Business, Finland
Kemira (water management) is an example of a large company, which has changed strategy, and oriented its practices towards corporate responsibility. Below, are other examples from small specialised companies, which have sustainability as the core of their strategy. Globe Hope is an innovative company that designs and manufactures ecological products from recycled and discarded materials. Greenriders is a socially rewarding service that helps users decrease the amount of carbon emissions created through person transportation. Finally, Sharetribe allows users to create a custom sharing, renting, or selling market place online, without having to have any coding experience.

What are your favourite local companies engaged in sustainability? Share them in the comments section below.

Creating a Student Journal – European College of Economics and Management

Screen Shot 2014-07-16 at 16.23.39The European College of Economics and Management (ECEM) in Bulgaria has had a busy year. The past year has seen their new Sofia campus awarded building of the year in Bulgaria in terms of education facilities, the college launched a new Sustainable Development Policy and courses to support the sustainable development mission, and ECEM launched a new peer-reviewed journal for students around the topic of sustainability. For more on the new student journal and how it came about, I spoke with Vesselin Loulanski from ECEM

What is “Science and Business?”

At the beginning of 2014 we launched a new peer-reviewed journal for students, calling it Science and Business. The journal aims to enhance student-university collaboration in research, and focus on applied research including sustainability issues. The journal also aims to increase professional and personal development opportunities for our students.

Science and Business covers aspects of modern institutional development, societal roles, and capacity building. We want it to focus on applied research to bridge the theory with the real world of economics.

How was it created?

The process took various steps in preparation, time and effort, yet within three months, the idea turned into the first issue of the journal.

We approached this journal very much like any other academic journal and were pleased to see that students took the project seriously. The difference with this journal was that design mattered more, and there was a focus on making it look modern and be more accessible, with a focus on professional rather than scientific content.

What kinds of articles have been featured?

In the first issue there were three business case studies—two papers focused on the tourism and hospitality industry (cultural heritage management and sustainable tourism), and a last paper on economics. Our second issue was a special issue with all six articles from award winners of a national competition which took place under the Union of Economics in Bulgaria. The topic was on e-commerce and global market trends, and articles came from Bachelor’s, Master’s and PhD students.

Each article is reviewed by a member of the editorial board as well as the editor, and final decisions are made at an editorial board meeting. The special issue was edited by the jury of the national competition with approval of the editorial board.

What advice do you have for other schools thinking of doing something similar?

Do not hesitate to lead the process. Students and faculty are happy with the journal. There has been serious submission interest and the journal is getting media attention. We are now looking to further improve the review process and the design of the journal, and hopefully introduce some English language papers. We will also probably have a series of special issues on topics of importance to the business sector in Bulgaria.

 

ISO 26000 in Higher Education Institutions – La Rochelle Business School

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La Rochelle Business School is currently in the initial phases of using the ISO 26000 directives as a central pivot to assist the school in its efforts to operate as a socially responsible institution. The school has extensive experience with the standard’s use in the business sector, and is in the process of implementing it in the school—raising awareness, developing consensus on what the standards mean, and identifying the issues the school will need to address. I recently spoke with Sarah Vaughan, associate Dean and Vincent Helfrich, Project ISO 26000 Coordinator, Institute for Sustainability through Innovation at La Rochelle Business School, about their experiences with the ISO 26000 standard.

What is ISO 26000?

ISO 26000 is an international standard on social responsibility which aims to provide guidance, rather than a set of requirements to which all types of organisations must conform. The standard was produced through extensive discussions with companies, NGOs and major trade associations, and covers:

  • principles of social responsibility
  • recognition of social responsibility and engaging with stakeholders
  • seven core subjects which in turn encompass some 43 issues

o   organisational governance

o   human rights

o   labour practices

o   fair operating practices

o   consumer issues

o   community involvement and development

o   integrating social responsibility within an organisation

It provides a strategic approach to social responsibility and is particularly helpful for internal and external analyses and providing starting points for implementing sustainability strategies (more information: http://www.iso.org/iso/home/standards/iso26000.htm).

How is La Rochelle using these standards? What are the benefits to the school?

The school has decided to institutionalise its commitment to CSR by structuring and aligning its overall social responsibility process with the ISO 26000 directives and the CGE/CPU framework—the French Universities standard.

The ISO 26000 framework is a universal guideline that we as a school are familiar with: we were actively involved in the national steering committee and workgroups that developed the standard, and we have acquired a practical approach to its implementation in the business world via the school’s industry funded research chair in CSR & ISO 26000. Using the ISO 26000 standard is a logical extension of the school’s commitment to social responsibility and sustainability, initiated at the end of the 90s.

What is some of the work coming from the Research Chair in CSR & ISO 26000? 

The CSR & ISO 26000 Research Chair crystallises our expertise in sustainability and social responsibility (SR) built up over the years. We were among the first to distil an understanding of SR and to provide guidance for corporations to translate SR principles, using ISO 26000, into effective actions for implementation. Our expertise of working with companies in developing practical strategies for implementing the standard, has enabled us to strengthen and develop our academic research base (contributing new insights), has had research implications for practice, and has informed our teaching (case study development and problem or issues-based consultancy projects).

The Fleury Michon research project is a perfect illustration of the work we are doing. Since 12th April 2010, the school has assisted this major French agro-food company in its process of integrating corporate social responsibility practices, in compliance with ISO 26000 guidelines. Collaboration with the company’s senior management has given researchers privileged access to the company in order to test the relevance of the ISO 26000 standard, by using a research-intervention approach. For the company, the self-assessment phase focused on evaluating actions in each of the 40 areas in the seven core subjects identified by ISO 26000.

The company published its CSR gap analysis and self-assessment report, tracking results on its CSR efforts, and then developed a strategy, identifying and highlighting areas for improvement, together with drawing up detailed action plans. Consultancy projects in the MBA programme have enabled students to become involved in the reporting process by generating reports on topics such as SR best practices in the Agro-Food Industries, Ethical Charters, and identifying the sector’s SR performance indicators that could be used by practicing managers.

What have been some of the challenges in implementing ISO 26000 at La Rochelle? Successes? 

The school’s ISO 26000 strategy is now at the second level of self-assessment. Implementation is not a simple process: firstly it requires creating a deliberative process to maximise stakeholder engagement. Secondly, it is essential to strike a balance between efficiency and representativeness of the project working group. Lastly, the working group must communicate throughout the organisation and update regularly on progress and achievements. SR encompasses a broad range of sometimes complex issues and not all members of the school’s organisation are well-versed in them.

As a consequence the internalisation and appropriation of the process—understanding and utilising the standard—is in general a lengthy one, but one which has enabled the school to progress on reaching consensus, a “thought way” as to the scope and purpose of social responsibility and its relevance to each member of the school in their activity. It has been an appropriate approach to broaden SR engagement. As for many organisations, the school is already taking some measures or is engaged in many activities to meet its social responsibility, but these are often the result of individual initiatives or informal processes, without a conscious SR strategy. It is a great participative learning process within the school to raise awareness of its accomplishments and share the different initiatives—this is probably the most productive part of the project lifecycle so far.

What advice would you have for other schools thinking of putting something similar into place?

Each situation is unique but first and foremost ISO 26000 is a collective project that requires commitment from top management and must be co-built with all the members of the school. The focus is on structuring and improving SR policy—it is not a trajectory towards a certification seal (conformity tests and compliance statement, etc.), as indeed no certification exists. From this perspective ISO 26000 is an interesting practical and incremental process: it is merely an evaluation of how mature the school is in meeting its social responsibility, and putting its performance into perspective.

What’s next?

The next step for the school will be to launch our SR action plan based on the priority areas we have identified as a result of the self-assessment phase, and to pursue our stakeholder engagement process. We will also continue to focus on procedures and practices within the corporate world (in the context of the CSR & ISO 26000 research chair) and to pursue our engagement with the standards bodies, as experts but also end-users, to contribute to developments of current and future regulations and guidelines.

 

Engaging with Local Government – Pforzheim University

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Despite becoming more global, Business Schools are physically located in a community and are increasingly exploring ways to not just interact with, but contribute to and strengthen that community. At Pforzheim University, faculty and students are engaged in sustainability topics at both the local and national government level on a variety of important projects.

I recently spoke with Juergen Volkert, Professor of Economics, Ethics and Sustainable Development about the school’s work with local government, and got an update on the how business schools in the region are working together. Rudi Kurz, Professor of economics, has added a section on the state of the PRME Chapter DACH, a regional chapter of German speaking countries, at the end of the interview.

Briefly describe Pforzheim University’s approach to sustainability and responsible management education.

Our main goal is to develop the knowledge, skills, and employability of our students as future managers, in a way that enables them to find and implement competent and successful solutions for global challenges. We aim at developing their competences to identify ethical issues, responsibly take advantage of social or environmental opportunities, avoid and mitigate related risks, and be aware of critical issues and limitations of responsible management. We want to provide the necessary foundations to achieve these goals to all our business students rather than training highly specialised experts in very narrow fields.

Discuss your relationship with the state and federal government institutions.

In general, we see a direct relation between governments and the corporate license to operate and sustainable development, thus important to responsible management education. Governments as regulators play a key role in managing or failing to establish a legal and economic framework as a basis of sustainable development. Therefore, besides being an exciting research background, experiences with current political decisions and governance are helpful to develop students’ understanding of political processes. We see this as important to better understand the needs, opportunities, and limitations of responsible management in general, as well as the roles and challenges of companies as political and social actors, also in multi-stakeholder bodies and decisions. In the case of Pforzheim University we depend to a large extent on the financial resources provided by the state of Baden-Wuerttemberg. This limits our ability to “greening the campus” (buildings etc.), although the green-red coalition government pays more attention and encouragement when aligned with initiatives like PRME.

What are some examples of the projects that have been undertaken?

Various colleagues engage in different kinds of projects and cooperate with companies, civil society organisations (CSO), and federal or state governments. Mario Schmidt, professor of ecological management, is a member of the Advisory Board for Sustainable Development of the government of Baden-Wuerttemberg since October 2012. Professor Schmidt is co-chairman of the working group “Goals and Indicators”—especially engaged in the development of a two-spheres-approach for sustainability consisting of the sphere “ecological viability” and the socio-economic sphere “needs and good life”. I am also a member of the Federal German government’s group of scientific advisors for official Poverty and Wealth Reports.

A decade ago, a state agency in the state of Baden-Württemberg established a state-wide certificate, the “Ethikum,” which is awarded students who show an outstanding intellectual engagement and reflection of issues related to ethics and sustainable development. At our university, the certificate provides incentives for students to delve into ethics and sustainability topics—not only because the certificate has become a valuable asset in a student’s application to companies. On average, our students make up 45% of all students awarded with the Ethikum, however, the certificate is not the only motivator for our students. For Pforzheim University, the certificate provides the opportunity to identify in which kinds of courses, how, and by which colleagues these issues are being incorporated and adopted into curricula.

What have been some of the challenges working with local government? Successes? Do you feel you are having an impact?

The Federal German government adopted the proposal of a research team, directed by myself, for its second and third Poverty and Wealth reports in 2005 and 2008. The research team had suggested using Nobel Prize laureate Amartya Sen’s capability approach as a theoretical framework for the government’s Poverty and Wealth reports, and operationalised this in a German setting. Of course, such a complete adoption of a scientific proposal is more an exception than a rule. Often political rationality will result in outcomes that may lack stringency from a scientific point of view or sometimes even ignore better alternatives. However, with respect to political rationality, processes, and governance, the latter cases provides at least as many learning opportunities for researchers as real impacts. As such, they are all “successful,” because they help to better teach political and sustainability governance issues, get into contact and dialogue with international researchers and practitioners, and hence, also foster a PRME strategy.

Green economy is a major challenge and chance for Baden-Wuerttemberg, and Prof. Schmidt is very engaged in supporting the regional economy in implementing a “greener economy.” He considers it an important task to contribute to the sustainable development of Baden-Wuerttemberg, doing this through his consulting activities in different boards. He also shares his expertise with our students at Pforzheim University, especially regarding the newly founded Bachelor-Program, “Resource Efficiency Management,” and the forthcoming Master-Program, “Life Cycle & Sustainability.” The study programme will prepare its students to implement resource efficiency measures in companies and thus to contribute to a greener economy.

What advice would you have for other schools for engaging more with their local governments?

Do not expect a cooperation to have an immediate impact, see it as a valuable learning opportunity with respect to a major responsible management stakeholder. Start in a team with others who are experienced with government relations. Do not only focus on companies and governments but make sure that your university also works with civil society or international organisations to establish a more comprehensive experience base with major responsible management stakeholders.

What are the next steps for this relationship?

As various colleagues already engage in corporate, CSO, and government projects and relationships, we want to further develop these contacts into a “learning experience centre.” The hope is that this centre will bring together the expertise of colleagues from diverse backgrounds within governments, companies, and civil society organisations at our university, and provide practical learning experiences in interdisciplinary teams for our students.

Pforzheim is a member of the PRME Champions group and also initiated the launch of the PRME Chapter DACH, in Co-operation with HTW Chur. Can you give us an update?

We share the idea that Regional Chapters can play a vital role in the advancement of PRME. Here we are adapting PRME to our regional context (of rich developed countries in Europe). In the DACH Chapter, communication is easier based on the common German language and we can also include participants with little English skills. Additionally, dialogue and mutual learning is easier because of short distances between countries.

After preparatory meetings in Pforzheim (January 2013) and Bled (October 2013), we officially launched the Chapter on 21 January, 2014, at MCI Innsbruck, with fifteen founding schools participating. This is a small number, and therefore one of the goals of the Chapter is to increase this number and to find broader support of the Principles.

Almost all business schools in our region do have some components of ethics, sustainable development, or CSR in their curriculum or research. What is lacking is a common understanding of the core elements, learning goals, and pedagogical approaches. The network will help to improve this situation. We are also in contact with all the regional networks of UN Global Compact, and want to establish a close relation with companies to exchange ideas and to learn from each other. Leaders include large global players like Bosch and Siemens, but also a lot of not so well-known medium sized companies which are nevertheless world market leaders (hidden champions).

The next conference will be in Chur, Switzerland, 29 – 30 October, and will focus on mission statements and strategy, as well as on teaching and curriculum development.

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